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Among the most important basic factors that contribute mainly to raising the standard of living of citizens and providing them with job opportunities, in addition to its importance in obtaining the national security of the state, and increasing national income, many scientists who contributed greatly to the establishment of economics have excelled, and they put forward theories and laws It is followed by and influenced by economists in our time, and among the most important of these scholars is what you find in our article.
Warren Edward Buffett, businessman and investor, was born during the Great Depression in America on August 30, 1930, in Omaha, Nebraska, USA. His father, Howard, worked as a stockbroker and was a member of the US Congress (lower house).
-His mother, Leila Stahl Buffett, was a housewife. Buffett was the second son, and the only brother of two other sisters.
-Buffett has demonstrated ingenuity in financial and investment matters since his early childhood. His friends and acquaintances described him as a mathematical prodigy. His ability to collect huge numbers in his head, which is the talent he showed from time to time in subsequent years.
-Warren was often visiting his father at his brokerage office during his childhood, and he was writing stock quotes on the designated plate. Warren made his first investment at the age of eleven, buying three shares at $ 38 a share. Soon the share price fell to $ 27, but Buffett held tight to his stock until it reached $ 40.
-Buffett earned little profit from selling the shares, but he regretted this decision when shares subsequently rose to $ 200, and he mentioned this experience recently, explaining that it is an early lesson to learn patience in investing.
-At the age of thirteen, Buffett was running his own business as a seller of newspapers and advice on horse racing. In the same year, he filed his first tax return, with his bike's price of $ 35 deducted from taxes.
-In 1942, Buffett's father was elected a member of the US House of Representatives, and then his family moved to Fredricksburg, Virginia; So that they are close to his new father's workplace.
-Buffett attended Woodrow Wilson High School in Washington, DC, and there he continued to chart new ways to earn money. During high school, Buffett and his friend bought a $ 25 pinball game machine.
-They put the machine in a barber shop, and within a few weeks they got a big profit, which made them buy other machines. Buffett owned game machines in three different places, before selling them for $ 1,200.
-When Buffett turned 16, he enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania to study commerce. He studied there for two years, then moved to the University of Nebraska to complete a Bachelor's degree. He graduated from college at the age of twenty, and at that time his fortune was estimated at $ 10,000$ from his business during childhood.
-Buffett was influenced by Benjamin Graham's book "The Intelligent Investor", which led him to join Columbia Business School; To study at the hands of this famous economist and investor. After earning his masters degree in 1951, Buffett worked in bond sales at Buffett-Falk & Company for three years, then worked for his teacher as a bond analyst at Graham-Newman Corp for two years.
-In 1956, he founded Buffett Partnership Ltd in his hometown of Omaha. Buffett managed to get to know the undervalued companies that made him a millionaire, using the techniques he learned from his teacher Graham.
-Among the companies Buffett estimated was a textiles company called Berkshire Hathaway. He began to pool the shares of this company in the early 1960s, and by 1965 he owned the company.
-Despite Buffett's success, he dissolved the company in 1969. To devote himself to the development of Berkshire Hathaway. He proceeded to gradually abolish the textile industry division, relying on the expansion of the company by purchasing shares in the media, such as: The Washington Post, and in the insurance sector, such as: GEICO, and in the energy sector, such as: Exxon.
-The "clairvoyant of Omaha" was so successful that he managed to convert some very cheap investments into gold, the most famous of which was his purchase of the scandalous company, Salomon Brothers, in 1987.
-Following Berkshire Hathaway's influential investments in Coca-Cola, Buffett became director of the company from 1989 to 2006. He was also director of Citigroup Global Markets Holdings, Graham Holdings Company and The Gillette Company.
-In June 2006, Buffett announced his donation of all his revolution for charity, dedicating 85% of his wealth to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. This donation was considered one of the greatest acts of charitable generosity in the history of the United States of America. In 2010, Buffett and Gates announced their founding of The Giving Pledge. To urge more wealthy people to contribute to charity.
-In 2012, Buffett revealed that he had prostate cancer. He began to undergo radiation therapy in July, then he successfully completed his treatment and recovered from the disease in November.
-This health crisis has not succeeded in slowing Buffett's eighty-year career, which is ranked annually among the Forbes' list of the world's wealthiest. In February 2013, Buffett, together with the 3G Capital investment group, bought $ 28 billion in Heinz H. J. Heinz.
-Other companies acquired by Berkshire Hathaway include: Duracell battery maker and Kraft Foods Group.

Adam Smith, a Scottish political scientist and one of the most important economic thinkers and still nearly two centuries after his death, is still dubbed "the father of modern economics", in addition to being a philosopher with a very strange and intelligent personality.
Adam Smith, the most important pioneer of Scottish political economy, and one of the most influential economic thinkers of the modern era, was known for authoring the book “The Wealth of Nations” which is one of the most important economic literature in modern history. And very generous.
Adam Smith was born in Kirkcaldy, Scotland, on June 16, 1723, and his father of the same name was a lawyer and prosecutor who died just two months after Adam was born, so his mother, Margaret, took it upon himself to teach him the best possible education and they were very close,
-Adam demonstrated oral, written and intellectual skills at a very early age, in addition to following strange behavior from his peers and this made him more distinguished. He learned in the best schools in Scotland, Berg School in Kirkcaldy Benn (1729 - 1737) in which he learned Latin, mathematics, history and literature.
-Then he studied philosophy at the age of fourteen at the University of Glasgow, in which he developed his passion for the principles of freedoms, expression and the realization of reason. Then he joined Balliol College at Oxford University to study European literature.
Soon after graduating and giving several lectures in Edinburgh, Smith collaborated with philosopher David Hume in the Scottish Enlightenment in 1750, and they shared a strong intellectual bond that resulted in many of their shared literature on politics, religion, history and economics.
-In 1751 Smith became professor of moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow and although he was not adept at public speaking his lectures were popular, during which he wrote his book The Theory of Moral Sentiments published in 1759,
-In this book he focused on the concept of mutual sympathy in being the basis of moral sentiments, and after his publication of this theory Adam became so popular that many students and wealthy people in particular gave up their universities to enroll in the University of Glasgow where he was a teacher.
-Smith was elected as a member of the Philosophical Society in Edinburgh in 1752, and spent 13 years as an academic professor and considered her one of the best years of his life, during which he also obtained a doctorate in law from the University of Glasgow in 1762, then submitted his resignation in 1763.
-He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in London and appointed a member of the Literary Club in 1775, after which he published his best and most important work, “The Wealth of Nations” which achieved instant success in 1776, a book that talks about the dimensions and effects of self-interest in addition to setting the first comprehensive political economy system achieving a higher The percentage of sales at the time, as the first edition was sold within 6 months only, and because of its importance in the world of economics and its support for free economic policies, Adam was called the "father of modern economics".
Adam died in Edinburgh on July 17, 1790 after a painful illness and 6 years after his mother’s death, he regretted his deathbed that he had not done more and demanded that all his personal papers be burned as a last security before his death.

He is the owner of the "Keynesian Revolution" .. Economic thinker and writer "John Maynard Keynes" is considered the actual founder of contemporary economics. His ideas stirred economic policy during the era of former US President "Barack Obama" as a savior of the recession, his strength lies in finding concepts that established alternative economic policies Among the influential figures in promoting trade and the stability of the global financial system after the second war.
-His book "The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money" is the most important, and was published in 1936, through which he was able to transform the concept of economics from a descriptive and analytical field to a policy-oriented one.
-John Maynard Keynes, was born on June 5, 1883 in Cambridge, and died on April 21, 1946 in Fairle Village, an economist, world-renowned writer and founder of Keynesian Macroeconomics. Among his works, ideas of the new or post-Keynesian economy emerged, and he is one of the most influential economic theorists in the twentieth century. He assumed many official positions, and he is one of the main figures in the Bretton Woods Agreement after the Second World War.
-He belongs to an educated bourgeois class. His father, John Neville Keynes, worked as an academic in Cambridge, and he published a book entitled: “The Scope and Curriculum of Political Economy” in 1890. His mother, “Florence Ada Brown,” was a well-known writer, pioneer in social work and elected politician. The mayor of Cambridge in 1932.
-His thesis, "A Message in Money", was the first work he wrote, and his important books were on economic thought. Most notably: “The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money” was published in 1936.
"Jean Tinenbergen"
He is an economist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1969 and is the first Nobel Prize in economics in the world. Jean Tienbergen was born on June 9, 1903 in The Hague, the Netherlands, he was educated at the University of Leiden, he obtained a doctorate in physics in 1929 and he worked as a professor at the Faculty of Economics in 1933 and became a full-time professor from 1956 onwards, and generally he was from 1929 to 1945 a statistician at the Central Bureau of Statistics in the Netherlands period 1936-1938 Joined the United Nations League as an expert and in the period 1945-1955 he held the position of Director of the Central Planning Office for the Dutch government and a consultant for governments in various countries in the United Arab Republic - at that time - Turkey, Venezuela, Suriname, Indonesia, Pakistan and others, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the General Secretariat check the states United and specialized agencies as regional and he is also a member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences and some institutes have been awarded fifteen honorary doctorates from various universities. He passed away in 1994. Tengbergen's most important economic contributions include the areas of: Econometrics. And the athlete, the macroeconomist, the distribution of national income, is the elder brother of Nicholas Tinbergen, winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Medicine.


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