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Demand in trade and economics

First is the demand in trade and economics 
The concept of demand is defined as the quantities of a good or service that consumers want to buy and are able to purchase at different prices during a specific time period, assuming that ther are other factors that remain constant, and it is noted that the demand contains three elements :the desire to buy and the ability to buy and associated with a period of time.
Distinguish between the order and the quantity required.
The demand represents a relationship between a set of default prices and the corresponding quantities required at these prices.
-The demand, then, is the list of the different quantities that consumers demand at different prices.
-The quantity demanded represents a certain quantity of these quantities at a specific price.
Any real quantity demanded in certain circumstances and thus the demand differs from the quantity required.
Second, the law of demand prices affect the quantity demanded, not the other way around.
What happens to the required quantity when the price changes, whether up or down?
Based on the premise of rational and rational behavior of economic  units and observing the reality it was concluded that the relationship between the independent variable price and the quantity required is the dependent variable is an inverse relationship.
So the law of demand, if the price rises, the quantity demanded will decrease, and if the price falls, the quantity demanded will rise with the other factors ramaining the same.
-Interpretation of the law of demand The decrease in price attracts new consumers who were not able to purchase the commodity before due to its high price.
The drop in price causes the old consumers of the good to buy more of it with the same amount of money.
Exceptions to the law of demand according to the law of demand, the relationship between the price and the quantity required is an inverse relationship but there are some exceptional cases in which the relationship between the price and the quantity required is a direct relationship
The first case is the case of poor  commodities, which are basic commodities such as bread, suger and rice, and they are called Geffen commodities in relation to the economist Geffen, who found that the prices of these commodities and the demand for them is a direct relationship.
The second case relates to commodities that some individuals believe that the increase in their price must be evidence that they are always good-made.
When the price of these commodities rises, the demand for them increases, because the individual believes that behind this rise in price is greater quality of the commodity and vice versa when its price falls.
The third case is the case of bragging goods.
These goods are characterized by a kind of uniqueness that makes the individual accept it in particular for the sake of appearing and Distinguishing himself from other individuals who cannot buy it because it is high in price such as jewelry, jewels and precious stones.
The Fourth case relates to the state of expectations, which is the case in which a decrease in the price of the commodity occurs, whereby the consumer, in stead of increasing the required quantity that he buys from the commodity, on the contrary, reduces them, because he expects that this decrease in price is provided to other declines that will follow.
Other factors influencing demand.
1-consumer offects the quantity demanded.
The more individuals`income increases their demand for goods, and vice versa.
2-prices of other commodities the high price of the rice commodity, for example, increases the demand for the substitute commodity, for example, bulgur, and vice versa.
3-population size increasing the population alone is not sufficient to increase the required goods and services, as they must have the purchasing power to do so.
4-consumer tastes the changes that obtain consumer tastes may result in an increase in the required quantity of some commodities and a decrease in others.
5-The method of distributing the national income the method by which the notional income is distributed among the social classes and classes has a great influence on the required quantity.
The economy is the primary controller worldwide and also the Encyclopedia that contains solutions to economic problems and humanitarian needs. 


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